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1. ANNE FRANK'S JOURNEY

Maps of the Holocaust 81"x 127" 1988
In this map we step beyond the building and city where Anne Frank hid during the Holocaust, and see the long journey she was forced to travel during her short life. From her birthplace in Frankfurt, Germany, she fled with her family to Amsterdam, Holland. After hiding there from the Nazis, she was caught and sent to Westerbork, a transit camp in Holland, and from there to Auschwitz, Poland, and finally to Bergen Belsen, the concentration camp in Germany where she died. She was not yet sixteen when she died. In this map, her image, set against a backdrop of boxcars, becomes fainter as she nears her death at Bergen Belsen.

Both the images of the boxcars scattered over the background and Anne Frank's image along the path of her journey were block printed in silver acrylic on patches of fabric – burlap in the case of the boxcars, shiny synthetic for Anne Frank's likeness – which were then appliqued on the black background fabric. The borders of the European countries were embroidered with gray cotton floss. The tracks representing Anne Frank's journey are rendered by means of a metallic silver ribbon, appliqued and punctuated with faceted acrylic jewels. A metallic silver ribbon also forms the outline of train tracks along the border of the wall hanging, on which Anne Frank's image appears repeatedly, as if in motion.

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2. ANNE FRANK'S AMSTERDAM

Maps of the Holocaust 83"x 114" 1990
The layout of the city of Amsterdam, where Anne Frank hid from the Nazis, evokes an image of a spider's web. This layout is here superimposed upon repeated images of Anne Frank. The repeated images allude to the picture-covered wall of Anne Frank's room.

The likeness of Anne Frank was carved in graduated sizes into linoleum blocks and printed on separate pieces of fabric, which were appliqued onto the background fabric. The map of the city is made up of appliqued silver ribbon, glistening like a spider's web. Anne Frank's image appears trapped in the web of the city.

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3. ANNE FRANK'S HIDING PLACE

Maps of the Holocaust 67"x106" 1989
Superimposed upon an image of Anne Frank is a floor plan of the second and third floors of the Annex of the building in Amsterdam where she and her family hid from the Nazis and where she wrote her now-famous diary. The words from the diary, reproduced from an entry she made on October 29, 1943, are symbolized by the strong horizontals and verticals of the floor plan, which form a cage-like structure within which Anne seems trapped.

Anne's image was painted in black acrylic on a solid gray fabric, and the cage-like structure was created by appliqued criss-crossing black ribbon. The red floor plan was accomplished through a combination of appliqued red ribbon and embroidery. The words from Anne Frank's diary were stenciled in white acrylic on black linen. The graph-like pattern in the background and along the border refers back to the pattern on the cover of Anne Frank's actual diary.

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4. REMEMBRANCE

Introductory 62"x93" 1989
This wall hanging serves as both an introduction to the Holocaust Wall Hangings series and as a summation. It is a collage of images and words taken from many of the other Wall Hangings. The Holocaust is here rendered via a hodgepodge of visual symbols associated with death: corpses and dismembered heads and limbs, train tracks and boxcars and barbed wire. In this nightmarish scene, the individual – such as Anne Frank – is lost in a depersonalized world where black prevails.

Many of the techniques employed in the Holocaust Wall Hangings are here utilized: painting, block printing, stenciling, sewing, applique, embroidery and beading. Repeated horizontal embroidered metallic silver lines extending over the work from edge to edge symbolize barbed wire and serve to unify the wall hanging. The dedicatory words are spelled out all around the border. The Holocaust Wall Hangings are here explicitly dedicated to the memory of the artist's husband, Robert Liberman, who, as a member of the United States liberating forces, saw Dachau in 1945 and never forgot. The artist began working on the subject of the Holocaust following her husband's death in 1986.

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5. TWO THOUSAND YEARS

Maps of the Holocaust 65"x81" 1988
This map of Europe focuses on the destruction of two thousand years of Jewish life in Europe during World War II. The dates indicate when the Jewish communities destroyed in the Holocaust in various countries were established. The image of the lion is used as a symbol for the Jewish people. The red lion, the Lion of Judah full of life, shows that each community was established. The lion is gray and upside down to indicate that the community was destroyed.

The repeated image of the lion in the body of the work was block printed directly on the background fabric but was printed on swatches of fabric and then appliqued along the edges. The borders of the European countries were embroidered in gray cotton floss. The red beads scattered over the surface symbolize the bloodshed.

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6. KRISTALLNACHT

Maps of the Holocaust 69"x80" 1989
The focus in this work is the night of November 9, 1938, when the Nazis launched a campaign of terror against the Jews of Greater Germany, setting fire to synagogues, destroying Jewish homes and businesses and killing Jews. The term "Kristallnacht" ("Night of Glass") refers to the broken glass of Jewish synagogues, homes and businesses resulting from this violence. The map depicts the area of Greater Germany. All the towns shown in the map were the sites of anti-Jewish violence.

Broken glass is symbolized in this work by a variety of means: first, by the block-printed images of shattered glass on the background fabric; second, by the shiny silver fabric defining the area of violence; and, finally, by the hundreds of irregularly shaped crystal beads which cover the area like shards.

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7. THE EINSATZGRUPPEN

Maps of the Holocaust 86"x96" 1990
This map depicts the section of Nazi-occupied Europe where the Einsatzgruppen – a Nazi task force of mobile killing units – operated in 1941-1942. The four units which made up this task force, totaling 3000 men, followed the German army in its drive East. Their assignment was to round up and kill all the Jews along their routes. With systematic savagery, the Einsatzgruppen murdered hundreds of thousands of Jews.

The area where the Einsatzgruppen operated is rendered in red fabric; the shape and color of the area are reminiscent of a puddle of blood. The Einsatzgruppen are represented by a repeated image of a soldier pointing a gun, block printed in black acrylic on patches of fabric and appliqued onto the red fabric. The names of some of the towns where the Einsatzgruppen operated were stenciled on. The area is strewn with block-printed bodies and shiny red beads symbolizing the carnage. The patterned background fabric of the wall hanging, with its white cross-like shapes on a black ground, connotes gravemarkers.

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8. WANNSEE PLANS

Maps of the Holocaust 64"x84" 1988
This map of Europe shows the plans made by the Nazi officials gathered at Wannsee, a suburb of Berlin, in January 1942, to discuss the Final Solution to the so-called "Jewish Problem". The "Jewish Problem" was the very existence of Jews, regarded by the Nazis as a threat to Aryan racial purity. The Final Solution was to kill every single Jew in Europe.

The stripes on the background fabric were block printed in white acrylic with row upon row of human skulls. A map of Europe, embroidered in gray cotton floss interspersed with clear rochaille beads, is delineated over the area. The number noted by the Wannsee officials as representing the Jews in each area of Europe was stenciled on scraps of fabric which were appliqued in the corresponding areas on the map. The total number of Jews marked by the Wannsee Conference for extermination – namely, 11,000,000 – appears repeatedly along the black border.

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9. CAMPS

Maps of the Holocaust 65"x99" 1991
Of the many hundreds of internment camps set up by the Nazis, a total of nineteen of the major ones are represented in this wall hanging, which indicates the different functions that these camps served. Of the nineteen camps, four (Belzec, Chelmno, Sobibor and Treblinka) were strictly killing centers and two (Auschwitz and Majdanek) were combination labor-death camps. The function of each camp is conveyed by the symbol attached to its name. The skulls signify death. The train tracks which fill the background serve as a reminder of the systematic way the Jews were transported to the camps.

The images attached to the names of the camps were created by means of block printing in acrylic on round patches of red fabric. The tracks were painted on rectangular patches of patterned gray fabric. These patches were appliqued on the black background fabric. In addition to block printing, painting and applique, this wall hanging also incorporates stenciling (in the names of the camps and in the repeated title "Camps"), embroidery (creating the borders of the countries with red cotton floss) and beading (tiny shimmering red beads are strewn over the area of Europe).

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10. PLAN OF AUSCHWITZ-BIRKENAU

Maps of the Holocaust 97"x109" 1991
The layout of the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp, one of six killing centers set up by the Nazis following the Wannsee Conference, is portrayed in this work. Auschwitz was designed not only as a killing center but also as a forced labor camp. The ramp, where new arrivals were separated for life, which meant forced labor, and for death, is here represented, as are the huts where those selected for forced labor were crammed. Also indicated are the gas chambers.

This work was created by a combination of sewing, applique and stenciling. Each of the huts is separately represented by a rectangular patch of silver fabric. The gas chambers and crematoria are similarly indicated. The ramp is represented by an appliqued silver ribbon, and the outline of the various parts of the camp was rendered by appliqued red ribbon, symbolizing the fact that the electrified fences surrounding the camp were themselves instruments of death. The various areas of the camp are marked by numbers and described by stenciled labels at the bottom. The graph checks of the background fabric serve to underscore the pedantic planning involved in the establishment and operation of Auschwitz, the largest and deadliest of the Nazis' death camps.

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11. ROAD TO AUSCHWITZ

Maps of the Holocaust 85"x113" 1988
This map shows the many roads that led to Auschwitz, the deadliest of all the concentration camps. From North, South, East and West, vast numbers of human beings were transported to their death at Auschwitz. The boxcars covering the background symbolize the methodical way in which the Nazis pursued their goal of the Final Solution.

The repeated image of the boxcars, block printed in silver acrylic on patches of rough burlap and appliqued onto the background, underscores the relentless pursuit by the Nazis of their objective. The borders of Europe were embroidered in gray cotton floss, while the roads leading to Auschwitz from all directions are indicated by appliqued red ribbon. Red ribbons also help form the image of the railroad tracks around the border. Auschwitz is marked by a glistening faceted red acrylic jewel, symbolizing blood and fire.

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12. CROSS

Maps of the Holocaust 81"x81" 1996
The layout of the six Nazi death camps – Auschwitz, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka – is presented in this wall hanging in the form of a cross. The image of the cross begs the question: Where was God during the Holocaust?

The camps are rendered through a combination of painting and embroidery. The names of the camps were stenciled in. The area of each of the camps is defined by a rectangular black piece of fabric appliqued onto the red background. The stark color combination of red and black symbolizes bloodshed and death.

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13. AUSCHWITZ EVACUATION

Maps of the Holocaust 64"x82" 1991
In view of the rapid advance of Soviet forces, the Nazis undertook the evacuation of Auschwitz in January 1945. This map pinpoints approximately two dozen of the camps to which Auschwitz inmates were evacuated by train. The open wagons around the periphery signify the fact that many were forced to travel in open railway wagons, exposed to the fury of Winter, and hundreds died of exposure.

The background fabric of this wall hanging is gray patterned with black lines whose movement connotes furious activity and confusion. The advancing Allied armies are represented by a line of appliqued red triangles, while the evacuation routes leading to camps away from Auschwitz are rendered by appliqued red ribbon. Auschwitz itself is punctuated by a large faceted red acrylic jewel, while tiny shimmering red glass beads are strewn over the whole area, symbolizing bloodshed. The open wagons were printed by means of linoleum blocks in black acrylic on gray fabric, then appliqued. The words were stenciled with black acrylic.

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14. SIX MILLION

Maps of the Holocaust 72"x81" 1988
The number of Jews murdered by the Nazis in each part of Europe during the Holocaust is here represented by a number on one of the large dismembered arms scattered over the area. The dismembered arms symbolize death and the number of Jews killed in each area is represented as a tattoo. The allusion is to the tattooed ID numbers which the Nazis incised into the arms of their victims. The total of six million is indicated by the arms around the border.

The arms were block printed in varying shades of red acrylic on pieces of black fabric, which were appliqued onto the background. The borders of the European countries are embroidered in red cotton floss. The beads scattered over the work help express the carnage. They are long and tubular, with an irregular surface, and are reminiscent of trees that have been chopped down, a symbol for death.

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15. FATE OF THE GYPSIES

Maps of the Holocaust 62"x80" 1990
Jews were not the only targets of the Nazi policy of ethnic cleansing. Like the Jews, the Gypsies were also regarded by the Nazis as belonging to an inferior race and thus endangering by their very existence the racial purity of the Germans. Hence the Gypsies, too, were targeted for annihilation.

This map utilizes the image of the hand – used by Gypsies to foretell the future – to convey the number of Gypsies murdered by the Nazis in various parts of Europe. The hands were block printed on black velvet to evoke the exoticism associated with Gypsies.

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16. EUROPE 1945

Maps of the Holocaust 85"x112" 1988
The continent of Europe is here portrayed as a graveyard at the end of World War II. The countries of Europe are strewn with bodies and some of the concentration camps where millions lost their lives are highlighted.

Each country of Europe is rendered in a different black fabric – cotton, linen, silk, velvet etc. - and appliqued onto the background fabric. The borders between the countries were embroidered with variegated red cotton floss. Each of the concentration camps is punctuated by a glistening faceted red acrylic jewel, symbolizing blood and fire. The small red beads scattered over the map symbolize the carnage. The images of the bodies were done by means of linoleum blocks, which were carved and printed on the various pieces of black fabric. The same image of a body is printed again and again over the wall hanging to underscore that what happened in the Holocaust happened repeatedly across Europe.

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17. SEARCH FOR SAFETY

Maps of the Holocaust 53"x110" 1989
This work focuses on the attempted escape of Jews from Nazi-dominated areas of Europe in the period 1933-1945, i.e. from the rise of Hitler to power in Germany through the end of World War II. The running figures, symbolizing escape, radiate from the Nazi center. The horizontal black stripes marking various areas of the world show the extent to which different countries restricted Jewish immigration (with the more widely spaced horizontals representing greater freedom of access). The number of Jews admitted by the various countries is indicated.

The running figures were block printed in gray acrylic on patches of black fabric, which were appliqued on the black background fabric. The various countries which admitted Jews are represented by appliqued red fabric. The borders outlining the continents were embroidered in variegated red cotton floss. Stenciling was used to render the words and numbers.

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18. VOYAGE OF THE ST. LOUIS

Maps of the Holocaust 53"x86" 1989
The reaction of many Jews to Nazi persecution was an attempt to escape, but as this work shows, there was no escape. The St. Louis was a German ship that left Germany in May 1939 with 936 refugees aboard, 930 of whom were Jews armed with certificates to enter Cuba. When the ship arrived in Cuba, however, only 22 of the Jewish refugees were admitted. The United States, where the refugees sought admission after being rejected by Cuba, refused admission to any of the refugees, so the boat turned around and returned to Europe. The refugees were discharged in Belgium. Most came under Nazi rule within twelve months and eventually perished in the Holocaust.

The voyage of the St. Louis from Europe to Cuba and back is represented by a repeated block printed image of the boat appliqued along its route. The white-on-black graph checks of the background symbolize the glimmer of hope in a sea of despair.

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19. REVOLT

Maps of the Holocaust 52"x64" 1989
Although weakened and terrorized, some Jews rose in revolt against their tormentors. Both in the ghettos and in the camps, Jews joined together to strike back at the Nazis. The ghettos where Jews revolted are represented in this wall hanging by the black patches, while the camps where this occurred are represented by the red patches. An upraised hand holding the Star of David indicates revolt.

This work incorporates block printing, stenciling, sewing, applique, embroidery and beading. The shimmering silver fabric on which the upraised Star of David is block printed symbolizes the glimmer of hope and contrasts sharply with the matte gray checked background fabric. Shiny red glass beads are scattered over the area of the map, symbolizing bloodshed.

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20. JEWISH SERVICEMEN IN WORLD WAR II

Maps of the Holocaust 57"x110" 1991
Jewish resistance to the Nazis took place not only sporadically, as in the ghettoes and camps, but also in the armed services of the Allies. This map shows how many Jews fought against the Nazis by participating in the various armed forces of the Allies. The repeated image of the soldier represents organized Jewish resistance to the Nazis.

The image of the soldier was block printed in black acrylic on red patches of fabric, which were appliqued onto the background fabric. The repeated image of the soldier makes up the various continents, which are outlined by red cotton floss embroidery. The striped background fabric connotes the uniforms worn by camp inmates and symbolizes the Nazi power against which the Allies fought.

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21. HANDS UP

Scenes of the Holocaust 46"x97" 1989
In this scene, men, women and children are standing facing away from the viewer with their arms upraised. They are facing a massive wall. Because their faces are invisible, the viewer's sense of the universality of their entrapment is heightened. Their stance, while indicating submission, also connotes supplication, and the wall they are facing, while implying "no escape", is reminiscent of the Wailing Wall. Perhaps at such a moment of despair, faith and prayer are the only way out.

The hands were painted on black scraps of fabric, then appliqued. The figures were created by the appliqueing of fabrics of varying colors, patterns and textures. The ground on which the group is standing is a solid black fabric, while the massive wall is rendered by means of a patterned fabric of irregularly shaped black horizontals and verticals on a gray ground. The overall tonality of the work is gray, symbolizing despair.

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22. FENCED IN

Scenes of the Holocaust 48"x137" 1989
The prisoners standing behind the massive fence pose an enigma: Are they different from one another or are they all the same? Their stiff poses and striped uniforms are the same. Even their faces appear the same. The only thing that seems to distinguish them from one another is their height. In each case, the height of the prisoner is just sufficient to allow him to stare out at the viewer through an opening in the fence. The depiction of the prisoners underscores the depersonalization that resulted from the Nazis' relentless pursuit of the Final Solution.

The massive fence is represented by a boldly patterned black and white fabric. The prisoners' uniforms were created by applique, with small buttons sewn on vertically along each top. The faces of the prisoners were created by the repeated printing on fabric scraps of a single linoleum block; the printed scraps of fabric were then appliqued. The uniformity of the prisoners' faces symbolizes the dehumanization that took place in the Holocaust.

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23. CART

Scenes of the Holocaust 47"x56" 1989
Against the dark landscape of the Holocaust, a small child pulls a large cart upon which lies a corpse wrapped in white. Who is this child? And who is the dead person on the cart? Is it possibly the child's mother? And where are they? In the Ghetto? And where are they heading? Most likely we will never know the answer to any of these questions because this child, like one and a half million other children, probably perished in the Holocaust.

This scene was created mostly by applique. The child's hand and face were block printed on black scraps of fabric, which were then appliqued. At the intersection of the spokes of the wheel is a dull silver metal button, reminiscent of a rifle shell. The vastness of the patterned gray background fabric, contrasted with the smallness of the child, serves to underscore the helplessness of the individual in the Holocaust.

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24. BOXCAR

Scenes of the Holocaust 75"x88" 1991
The boxcar depicted here symbolizes the vast network of trains which the Nazis used to transport people during World War II. The image is that of a massive cattle car, all boarded up except for one small window through which the face of a girl is barely visible. The image in the window seems to be that of Anne Frank, possibly on her way from Holland to Auschwitz or from Auschwitz to Bergen Belsen, where she perished. The boxcar and Anne Frank's image in it concretize the destiny of the millions whom the Nazis shipped in boxcars to their deaths. The contrast between the massive boxcar and the fragile image in the window conveys the isolation and dehumanization of the individual in the Holocaust.

The boxcar and tracks were created by appliqued fabric. A gray moire fabric makes up the body of the train, its panels delineated by appliqued silver ribbon. Striped gray taffeta was used for the tracks. Metallic silver buttons punctuate the panel housing the window, like screws, indicating that it is sealed. Anne Frank's image was block printed on a separate piece of fabric and appliqued, then covered by a layer of tulle to somewhat obscure the image in the window.

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25. BUNKS

Scenes of the Holocaust 23"x56" 1989
Depicted against a massive structure of vertical poles and horizontal bunks are human beings so depersonalized that they seem to have lost all semblance of individuality. Clad in their uniformly striped camp garb, they lie crammed together in identical poses on level upon level of identical bunks, and uniformly stare at us with a gaze that is uniformly uncomprehending.

The scene was created by a combination of block printing and applique. The gray rectangular area against which the bunks and inmates are silhouetted was appliqued onto the black background fabric, and the vertical poles as well as horizontal bunks were created by appliqued ribbon. The prisoners were block printed in white acrylic on black pieces of fabric, which were appliqued. Only a single block of linoleum was carved and repeatedly printed in creating the figures to symbolize the dehumanization that took place in the Holocaust.

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26. WIRE FENCE

Scenes of the Holocaust 45"x58" 1989
The wire fence used by the Nazis to imprison millions was often electrified. A mere touch of the fence would send a fatal electric charge through anyone who came in contact with it. While to many this represented an obstacle to freedom, others purposely touched the fence to escape what they considered a fate worse than death. We shall never know what kind of freedom the man depicted here sought, but by touching the fence, he succeeded in escaping a life he did not wish to continue.

The prisoner's figure was done by the appliqueing of pieces of striped gray fabric; his head and hands were block printed in gray on black burlap, then appliqued. The starkness of the white-striped black fabric forming the foreground and fence stands in marked contrast to the muted appearance of the prisoner and suggests the underlying struggle between life and death.

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27. INSIGNIA

Scenes of the Holocaust 61"x56" 1994
The shapes and colors of insignia designed to be worn by inmates of Nazi concentration camps is here presented in the form of a grid. Across the top, the columns read: Political (red); Hardcore Criminal (green); Emigrant (blue); Jehovah's Witness (purple); Homosexual (pink); Antisocial (black). On the left margin, starting from the top, the categories are: Basic Colors, Insignia for Repeaters, Inmates of Penal Colonies, Insignia for Jews and Special Insignia. Some of the Special Insignia are illustrated and a sample sleeve bearing insignia appears at lower right. The original document on which this presentation is based is in the camp museum at Dachau.

This wall hanging was created mainly by applique, the shapes of the various insignia rendered in appropriately colored fabric. The words were stenciled in black acrylic and the grid was created by painting. The background gray striped fabric evokes an image of the uniforms worn by camp inmates under the Nazis.

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28. RACE DEFILER

Scenes of the Holocaust 44"x21" 1998
Two of the insignia worn by Jewish inmates of Nazi concentration camps are featured in this work. Both insignia represented "race defilers", a term used by the Nazis to describe Jews – male or female – suspected of having engaged in sexual relations with "Aryans". Both insignia combine a yellow triangle, which indicates "Jew", with a black triangle. The two insignia are based on illustrations found in a row of "Special Insignia" in the table of insignia of camp inmates contained in an original document at the camp museum in Dachau.

As in TRIANGLES, this wall hanging was created mainly by applique. The words "male", "female", "race defiler" and "Jew" were stenciled in silver acrylic. The background for the insignia is a striped fabric, which evokes the image of camp uniforms.

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29. TRIANGLES

Scenes of the Holocaust 33"x114" 1998
The focus here is on six of the insignia worn by Jewish inmates of Nazi concentration camps. The insignia were composed of triangular fabric patches of various designated colors – red for "Political", green for "Hardcore Criminal", blue for "Emigrant", purple for "Jehovah's Witness", pink for "Homosexual" and black for "Antisocial" – superimposed upside down upon the "basic" yellow triangle indicating "Jew". The presentation is based on the row entitled "Insignia for Jews" in the table of insignia of concentration camp inmates as seen in an original document in the camp museum at Dachau.

This wall hanging was created mainly by applique. The lettering was stenciled in silver acrylic. The triangles are mounted on striped fabric to suggest that the insignia were worn on camp inmates' uniforms. The words "Insignia" and "Jew", together with appliqued yellow triangles, appear in the border.

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30. YELLOW STAR

Scenes of the Holocaust 51"x51" 1994
During the Nazi occupation of Europe, Jews were compelled to wear a badge to distinguish them from non-Jews. The required badge, which varied from region to region, was usually a yellow star on a black ground or a black star on a yellow ground, often with the reference to "Jew" in the local language indicated at the center of the star. This wall hanging treats the badge not as a badge of shame but rather as one to be worn with pride. The image here is that of a regal coat adorned with stars.

The shape of the coat was rendered by appliqueing a piece of black fabric onto the red background. Most of the stars in this work were created by means of block printing. Linoleum blocks were carved with the various designs and printed in black acrylic on patches of variegated yellow, which were then appliqued in a lively collage. The yellow stars edging the front and sleeves of the coat were appliqued to suggest a garland of flowers, or lei, a symbol of hospitality and farewell.

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31. BOARDING

Scenes of the Holocaust 46"x58" 1994
Images – both photographic and art – of people boarding trains vie with one another for attention in this collage. The repetition of the images is designed to underscore the fact that what happened in the Holocaust happened repeatedly.

Both the photographic and the art images used in this work were transfer printed onto rectangular patches of solid gray cotton fabric, which were then appliqued onto a background fabric. The image of a large group of faceless people boarding a train, which appears again and again in this work in various sizes, is taken from the artist's painting BOARDING (acrylic on stretched canvas, 30"x40", 1987), which is part of her Holocaust Paintings series. The gray tonality of the work has a newsreel-like quality and symbolizes hopelessness.

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32. SHOWERS

Scenes of the Holocaust 46"x58" 1994
"Showers" was the euphemism used by the Nazis to lure unsuspecting victims into the gas chambers. Photographic as well as art images related to the gassing and cremation of human beings form a patchwork of images claiming attention in this wall hanging. The repetition of images underscores the universality of the deceptiveness and brutality employed by the Nazis.

The images, whether photographic or derived from art, were transfer printed onto rectangular pieces of gray cotton, then appliqued to the background fabric. The image of the line of women and children on their way to the "showers" above a heap of bodies derives from the artist's painting SHOWERS (acrylic on stretched canvas, 30"x40", 1987), which is part of the artist's Holocaust Paintings series. The gray tonality of the work, as in its companion piece BOARDING, has a newsreel-like quality and symbolizes hopelessness.

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33. GIFTGAS

Scenes of the Holocaust 42"x48" 1994
"Giftgas" is the German term for poison gas. Pictured in this wall hanging is a can of Zyklon B gas pellets, of the kind used by the Nazis at camps such as Auschwitz to gas millions of human beings. The term "Giftgas" is clearly visible on the can. The pellets were thrown by Nazi functionaries through an opening in the ceiling of the gas chamber and would turn into poison gas upon contact with the air, suffocating those trapped in the sealed chamber below. This method of mass murder was especially devised by the Nazis in pursuit of their goal of the Final Solution, namely, the annihilation of the Jewish people.

The photographic image of a Zyklon B can was transfer printed on fabric and appliqued onto a patterned background fabric. The black and gray patterned background fabric was especially selected because its pattern suggests showerheads. The gas chambers were euphemistically called "showers" by the Nazis so as to more easily lead their unsuspecting victims to the slaughter. The term "Giftgas" was stenciled around the image of the Zyklon B can.

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34. THE FINAL SOLUTION

Scenes of the Holocaust 67"x67" 1990
The progression of anti-Jewish measures taken by the Nazis in pursuit of the Final Solution is represented in this wall hanging as a four-step process. From evacuation and relocation in the upper left quadrant of the work, the scenes move clockwise to incarceration in camps, individual and group murder and, finally, to mass extermination by gas and crematoria. The four-step process is represented by scenes arranged in four rectangular panels, two horizontal and two vertical, against a black background. Because of the arrangement of the gray panels, the black background forms a swastika. The red border of the wall hanging bears the words "The Final Solution" as well as images of skulls.

The various scenes were created by means of block printing. Dozens of linoleum blocks were carved with different images of persecution and printed with white or black acrylic on gray patches of fabric, which were assembled into rectangular panels. The thick red floss used to assemble the patches serves to divide the different scenes from one another and provides emphasis to each. A stenciled hand on the black background indicates the direction of the progression of anti-Jewish measures. The red border connotes blood and makes explicit the meaning of this wall hanging.

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35. FIRE

Scenes of the Holocaust 38"x47" 1990
The image of an arm protruding from a crematorium underscores the crematorium's human connection. The arm here, like the arms of millions in the Holocaust, bears a tattoo. The tattoo reads "6000000", reminding us that six million Jews perished in the Holocaust.

The crematorium, formed in black fabric appliqued onto the red background, has a fiery red interior rendered in shimmering red silk. Tiny red glass beads sewn near the edge of the crematorium's open doors seem to reflect the fiery interior. The arm was block printed on a separate piece of fabric, which was then appliqued. The number "6000000" was stenciled on. The image of the bricks was created by the use of a black-striped red fabric overpainted in acrylic with black vertical lines.

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36. MONUMENTS

Scenes of the Holocaust 55"x172" 1990
The three crematoria facing us with their open doors invite us to probe the secrets they hold within. What unspeakable events took place here? These large black crematoria are gravestones marking the road of history, monuments which serve to remind us of humanity's dark past.

The images of the crematoria were created by appliqued black fabric. Red stitching along the edge of the crematoria doors and the tiny glistening red glass beads edging the crematoria interiors suggest the glow of fire. The black-striped red fabric of the background represents the brick wall in which crematoria were housed in the camps. The red color of the background symbolizes blood and fire; the blackness of the crematoria symbolizes death.

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37. MEMORABILIA

Scenes of the Holocaust 48"x74" 1995
Images of the dentures collected by the Nazis from the mouths of their victims and intended for re-use here make up the wall in which a crematorium is set. The crematorium itself is edged with images of toothbrushes. Visible in the interior of the crematorium are human skulls, their teeth sharply defined.

The photographic images of dentures and toothbrushes were transfer printed on pieces of fabric, which were then appliqued onto the black background fabric. The skulls were transfer printed from copies of the artist's drawing of a skull onto patches of fabric, then appliqued. A semi-transparent layer of a black gauzy fabric covers the interior of the crematorium, forcing the viewer to look closer at the cache of human skulls. The contrast between the clarity of the man-made objects – the dentures and toothbrushes – and the obscurity of the skulls serves as a reminder that man-made objects were more highly valued by the Nazis than human life and therefore had a better chance of surviving the Holocaust.

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38. BELONGINGS

Scenes of the Holocaust 25"x130" 1995
A collage of images associated with human hair makes up this panoramic wall hanging. Photographic images of implements usually associated with hair – combs, brushes, razors, scissors – are presented together with those of human hair, whether shorn, packed in bags or woven into mats. The depicted implements and the hair survived the Holocaust. The featured photograph of the twosome -–the dark haired lady and the blond girl – reinforces the underlying element of "hair".

The photographic images were transfer printed on rectangular patches of fabric and then appliqued onto the background fabric. The images are repeated, though in a variety of sizes, to underscore the universality of the destructiveness wrought by the Nazis. The featured photograph of the lady and girl was taken in Israel (then Palestine) in 1942, i.e. during the Holocaust. The girl was the artist, Judith, and the lady was her nanny, Batya. Batya had escaped from Poland and arrived in Israel (then Palestine) shortly before the outbreak of World War II. She immediately found employment as a nanny with Judith's family. Batya had left her elderly parents and young brother in Poland. Her parents were later murdered by the Nazis. Batya was Judith's personal link to the Holocaust. The emotional connection between Judith and Batya is clearly evident.

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39. GOOD AND EVIL

Epilogue 45"x50" 1998
The starting point for this wall hanging was the Biblical statement, in Genesis, that when He created the world, God "saw that it was good". By contrast, the artist probing the Holocaust cannot help but see the prevalence of evil. The Biblical statement appears seven times in this work, once for each of the seven days of creation. That phrase is interspersed with "and she saw that it was evil", which reflects the artist's view. These two contrasting visions of the world are set in this wall hanging against the background of a map of Europe during the Holocaust. Bodies are strewn all over the area and a multitude of glistening red beads symbolize the carnage. The number "6000000", a reference to the number of Jews who perished in the Holocaust, appears around the border, as do four of the artist's SELF-PORTRAITS OF A HOLOCAUST ARTIST.

This work combines stenciling, block printing, transfer printing, applique, embroidery and beading. It raises a fundamental question: How can the Biblical view be reconciled with the Holocaust?

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40. POWER

Epilogue 21"x51" 1999
This work relates to Psalm 145/11: "Of your power they will tell …" Depicted are piles of artificial limbs, heaps of dentures and mounds of eyeglasses, all taken by the Nazis from their victims in the Holocaust. POWER raises the question: Why did God not use His power to help the weak?

The images were transfer printed from copies of Holocaust photographs onto patches of cotton fabric, then appliqued. The wording was stenciled with silver acrylic paint.

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41. PRAISE

Epilogue 21"x51" 1999
This work relates to Psalm 145/4: "Each generation will praise your deeds…" The imagery is from Kristallnacht ("Night of Glass") and Auschwitz. Depicted are destroyed synagogues, scorched Torahs and heaps of prayer shawls. PRAISE raises the question: While the Jews were devoutly praising Him, where was God?

The images were transfer printed from copies of Holocaust photographs onto patches of cotton fabric, then appliqued. The wording was stenciled with silver acrylic paint. The appliqued striped fabric and the knotted cording dangling down from the two bottom corners are designed to suggest a prayer shawl.

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42. VANISHED

Epilogue 21"x21" 1998
This wall hanging incorporates a map on which are indicated the six Nazi death camps where millions died. At the center appears a self-portrait of the artist. In probing the Holocaust, the artist's personal identity is obscured because of her feeling of empathy with the victims. Only her eyes remain clear to see.

The artist's self-portrait was transfer printed onto white cotton from a copy of her SELF-PORTRAIT OF A HOLOCAUST ARTIST #107 (acrylic on stretched canvas, 18"x18", 1997). A semi-sheer black fabric helps obscure the artist's face. The borders of the map were embroidered with gray cotton floss and the names of the death camps were painted with white acrylic. Each of the death camps is punctuated by a clear square acrylic jewel. The background of the work is striped to evoke images of camp uniforms and wire fences from the Holocaust. The gray tonality of the work conveys a feeling of helplessness and despair.

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43. HOLOCAUST ARTIST

Epilogue 21"x113" 1997
In this wall hanging the artist probes, through a series of eleven self-portraits, her own preoccupation with the subject of the Holocaust. The self-portraits portray the artist in various settings which evoke the Holocaust. From left to right she is seen peering through the window of a boxcar; staring from behind a barbed wire fence; looking into a map of Europe on which the six death camps are indicated; wearing a crown marked "Jew"; studying a map of Europe; looking through the eyes of Anne Frank; imprisoned behind bars; looking through a yellow Star of David; and, finally, in the last three self-portraits, personally vanishing as she immerses herself in the Holocaust.

The self-portraits incorporated in this wall hanging were transfer printed from eleven paintings belonging to the artist's series of SELF-PORTRAITS OF A HOLOCAUST ARTIST. The original self-portraits were done in acrylic on stretched canvas in 1997. The images as printed were appliqued onto the black background fabric of the wall hanging. The words "Holocaust Artist", stenciled in silver acrylic, frame the work.

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44. WITNESS

Epilogue 18"x26" 1998
The artist's eye is here superimposed upon that of Anne Frank in an expression of identification. Set against a map of Europe, the tracks leading Anne Frank on her journey to death pass over Anne's mouth, as if to silence her. But nothing, not even death, could silence the voice. Like her young subject, the artist, too, bears witness to the Holocaust.

This work was created through a combination of transfer printing, applique, embroidery and beading. The portrait was transfer printed on white cotton from a copy of the artist's painting SELF-PORTRAIT OF A HOLOCAUST ARTIST #102 (acrylic on stretched canvas, 18"x18", 1997). The background of the wall hanging consists of a striped fabric which evokes images from the Holocaust: camp uniforms, wire fences, railroad tracks. The artist's identification with Anne Frank was heightened by the fact that the two were born the same year.

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45. ID

Epilogue 21"x26" 1998
In this work, a self-portrait of the artist appears on an identification card similar to those which Jews had to bear under the Nazis. The large red "J" on the left half of the document (standing for "Jude", or "Jew") and the added middle name "Sara" on the right identify the bearer of the document as a female Jew. Jewish males' ID cards also bore the letter "J" but had "Israel" added as a middle name.

The ID card was transfer printed onto white cotton fabric from a reproduction of the artist's SELF-PORTRAIT OF A HOLOCAUST ARTIST #100 (mixed media on stretched canvas, 20"x30", 1997). The transfer printed image was appliqued onto a red background fabric, on which are also appliqued block-printed yellow Stars of David marked "Jude". The word "Jew" was stenciled in black acrylic around the border. Large glistening red beads, symbolizing bloodshed, are scattered over the red background.